Millenium Development Goals

Millenium Development Goals

 
Subsequently in September 2000 the world leaders again joined together at United Nations Headquarter in New York to adopt the United Nations Millennium Declaration, to set out a series of time-bound targets concerning poverty, gender equality, maternal mortality and education - with a deadline of 2015 - that have become known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDG).
 

Millennium Development Goal


5A. Reduce Maternal Mortality with 75%


5B. Universal access to reproductive health 
Understanding the origins of this declaration is important to understand the impact and its relative positioning in the 1990s. Between the 1950s and the 1980s the developing world witnessed a respectable economic growth, which was in essence a radical transition compared to the stagnating economic situation in the colonial era before[1]. Nevertheless most ordinary people did not benefit from the prosperity. Hence, in the 1980s and 1990s, when globalization arose, many ideologies of worldwide prosperity upheaval appeared to be belied. The economic growth in most developing countries, except for India and China, was much slower and volatile than the decades before and economic inequalities between countries and between people increased, leaving large parts of the world in poverty and deprivation. These lacking developments and the illation that ‘the West’ was both ethical and economical bound to address third world problems let to the very birth of the MDGs.
 
MDG and conflict
The impact of conflict on the MDGs cannot be underestimated[2]. Those counrtires who suffer conflict will inevitably perform poor on the MDGs. One-third on the countries with low human development suffer from some kind of conflict. The effect does not stay within borders but spoils to neighbouring nations, with all the negative consequences. Conflicts disrupt health systems and affects the legitimacy of authorities, who’s focus most often is set on settling the conflict instead of mapping out locally effective programs.
 
Lacking maternal results
 Although the Millennium Development Goals represent the widest commitment in history to address global poverty and ill health, anno 2013 an uneven progress between goals and growing inequity between subpopulations arises. Moreover, not all the targets have or even will be met within the final two years of the declaration. Some researchers argue the besides
the ‘education for all children’-target most of the developing countries will not meet the other goals, and some whole regions, especially Sub-Saharan Africa, will miss them by a wide margin[4]. Of the 47 African countries they consider 42 to be ‘off-track’ for more than half of the targets.
Also the United Nations admits that the set goal to reduce the maternal mortality rate worldwide with 75%, is unreachable[5].  Within the first thirteen years of the project the MMR dropped with 50% while only two years remain to reach the other 25%.
Specific deficits that contribute to the shortcoming results have been detected in the project process most importantly (1) ongoing obstructed access to maternal health care and (2) substandard averages of births attended by skilled health personnel.  
 

[1] Deepak, N. (2012). The MDGs after 2015: Some reflections on the possibilities. Retrieved on September 20, 2013, from: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/untaskteam_undf/d_nayyar.pdf.


[2] Hill, P. S., Mansoor, G. F. & Claudio, F. (2010). Conflict in least developed countries: challenging the MDGs. Bull World Health Org., 88, 562 – 563.


[3] United Nations. (2007). Africa, and the Millennium Development Goals. Retrieved on September 20, 2013, from:


[4] Clemens, M. A., Kenny, C. J. & Moss, T. J. (2007). The trouble with MDGs: Confronting expectations of aid and development success. World Developments, 25, p. 735 – 751.


[5] CRED. (2011). Health Data in Civil Conflicts. South Sudan Under Scrutiny. Retrieved on August 4, 2013 from: reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/F_R_300.pdf 

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